Understanding the 7 Causes of Miscarriage

Miscarriage, a deeply personal and often painful experience for many couples, occurs in about 10-20% of known pregnancies. Despite its frequency, the causes of miscarriage and prevention methods are not widely understood. This article aims to demystify the subject by exploring seven significant causes of miscarriage and discussing holistic measures to mitigate these risks, providing couples with knowledge and tools for better pregnancy outcomes.

While certain factors leading to miscarriage are inevitable, a deeper understanding of its causes can guide couples to adopt healthier lifestyles and preventative measures that promote a successful pregnancy.

Pregnant person gently cradling their belly with both hands.

1. Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities are the primary cause of miscarriage, especially notable in the first trimester. These abnormalities include missing, extra, or structurally altered chromosomes. When such issues occur, the embryo may not develop normally, leading to miscarriage. Common conditions caused by these anomalies include trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), and trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome).

Holistic Insight: Despite the randomness of these genetic anomalies, proactive health measures can enhance pregnancy outcomes. Key practices include ensuring adequate intake of folic acid before and during pregnancy, which is crucial for preventing chromosomal defects in the developing embryo. Additionally, engaging in a healthy lifestyle, avoiding environmental toxins, and maintaining a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals can all contribute to optimal genetic health. It is also beneficial to consult with a genetic counselor if there are concerns or a history of genetic issues in the family.

2. Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances can significantly impact pregnancy viability. A common issue is insufficient levels of progesterone, a hormone critical for maintaining the uterine lining and supporting embryonic growth. If progesterone levels are too low, the uterus may not be able to sustain a pregnancy, increasing the risk of miscarriage.

Holistic Insight: Balancing hormone levels is essential for a healthy pregnancy. Strategies include maintaining a balanced diet rich in phytoestrogens and omega-3 fatty acids, which can naturally support hormone production. Regular exercise and stress management techniques such as yoga and meditation are recommended to improve overall hormonal health. Supplements, particularly those containing vitamin B6 and vitamin E, can also support hormone balance, but should always be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular check-ups can help monitor hormone levels and adjust dietary and lifestyle choices accordingly.

3. Uterine Abnormalities and Incompetent Cervix

Certain structural abnormalities of the uterus, such as an unusual shape or size, or a weak cervix (incompetent cervix), can interfere with the embryo’s ability to implant or remain implanted. These conditions can be congenital (present at birth) or develop later in life due to surgery, infections, or exposure to certain chemicals.

Holistic Insight: Detecting these issues early through regular medical screenings and prenatal care is critical. Treatments such as a cervical cerclage, a surgical procedure that closes the cervix during pregnancy, can be effective in preventing premature birth and miscarriage. Other supportive treatments might include hormonal supplements like progesterone and the use of a pessary, a device inserted into the vagina to support the cervix. Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding activities that put pressure on the cervix are also advised. Couples should seek a specialist in maternal-fetal medicine for personalized care and intervention strategies.

4. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, Alcohol, and Excessive Caffeine

Lifestyle choices play a significant role in pregnancy health. Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and high caffeine intake are strongly associated with increased miscarriage risks. These substances can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and the health of the mother, leading to complications or loss of pregnancy.

Holistic Insight: To significantly reduce the risk of miscarriage, it’s crucial to eliminate smoking, limit alcohol intake, and moderate caffeine consumption. Engaging in counseling and lifestyle modification programs can provide the necessary support and strategies to alter these habits effectively. Additional holistic approaches include increasing water intake, maintaining a balanced diet, and participating in regular physical activity, which can all help the body recover from the effects of these substances and support overall reproductive health.

5. Environmental Toxins

Environmental factors also affect miscarriage rates. Exposure to toxins such as pesticides, lead, mercury, and other heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage. These substances can be found in the workplace, in polluted environments, or even in certain household products, and can affect the quality of the eggs and sperm as well as the health of the developing fetus.

Holistic Insight: Minimizing exposure to harmful toxins is crucial for reducing miscarriage risks. Opting for organic food products can decrease the intake of pesticides. Similarly, using natural cleaning and personal care products can help avoid contact with harsh chemicals. Engaging in regular detoxification protocols, such as consuming foods high in antioxidants and ensuring adequate hydration, can aid the body in eliminating accumulated toxins. Pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant should also avoid areas known for high pollution and ensure that their living and working environments are as toxin-free as possible.

6. Unmanaged Chronic Conditions

Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, and autoimmune diseases can significantly increase the risk of miscarriage when not properly managed. These conditions can affect hormonal balance, immune function, and overall health, which are crucial for maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

Holistic Insight: Effective management of chronic conditions is essential for improving pregnancy outcomes. This includes tailored dietary plans that address specific health needs, regular physical activity to improve overall body function, and adherence to prescribed medications. Additionally, regular monitoring by healthcare professionals is crucial to ensure that these conditions are well-controlled. Holistic practices such as stress management techniques, yoga, and acupuncture may also support overall health and complement medical treatments.

7. Advanced Maternal Age

Women over the age of 35 face increased risks during pregnancy, including a higher likelihood of miscarriage. This is primarily due to decreases in egg quality and an increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities as women age. These factors can complicate conception and pregnancy sustainability.

Holistic Insight: Women of advanced maternal age should consider comprehensive preconception care to enhance their chances of a healthy pregnancy. This includes nutritional support aimed at improving egg quality—such as supplements with CoQ10, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Regular fertility assessments are also important to understand and manage individual health risks effectively. Lifestyle modifications to reduce stress, maintain a healthy weight, and eliminate toxins are additionally beneficial. Engaging with fertility specialists can provide further personalized strategies and support.


While the pain of a miscarriage can be overwhelming, understanding its causes offers a path forward for many couples. By addressing these seven factors through a holistic approach that includes lifestyle adjustments, dietary changes, and medical interventions, couples can significantly improve their chances of a healthy and successful pregnancy.

Are you ready to take proactive steps towards a healthy pregnancy? Download our free guide, “Preventing Miscarriages,” available now. Equip yourself with the knowledge to enhance your reproductive health and pave the way for a successful pregnancy.

WELL DONE! You have successfully unlocked the PDF download link.
Click here to download the PDF.

Share this article

About the Author: NFP Editorial Team

The NFP Team is composed of seasoned professionals in the field of natural health and reproductive wellness. With diverse qualifications ranging from Naturopathy and Reproductive Medicine to Evidence-Based Medicine and Integrative Health, the team brings together a wealth of knowledge and experience. Collectively, they have decades of hands-on experience in treating a myriad of health conditions with a focus on fertility and reproductive issues. Their scientifically grounded approach combines modern medicine with traditional practices, ensuring a holistic healthcare model. The team’s articles, videos, guides, and reports are meticulously researched and designed to provide actionable insights for couples on their path to parenthood. Rest assured, the information presented is rooted in science and honed by the practical, real-world experience of the NFP team members.